GROUP 2 (M)

PERFORMANCE CONDITIONS — DISC OR DRUM BRAKES — CARS OR TRUCKS
WHEN FULLY DEPRESSED, BRAKE PEDAL SLOWLY MOVES TO FLOOR
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Most Probable CauseAction IndicatedReference For
Appropriate
Shop Manual
If Defective
1.Air in hydraulic system or insufficient fluid in system.Check fluid level. Check for possible fluid leaks (See NOTES 1 and 2).Group 2, Part 1Correct any source of leakage. Add the specified fluid to the proper level and bleed the brakes.
IF OK:
2.Dirty or improper (percolating) brake fluid.Check condition of brake fluid. Check the area of master cylinder for evidence of percolation (See NOTE 3).Group 2, Part 1Drain the brake system. Flush the system with clean brake fluid. Add the specified fluid to the proper level and bleed the system.
IF OK:
3.Leaking caliper piston seals (disc brakes).Disassemble the caliper assembly. Clean and inspect for worn or damaged parts.Group 2, Part 2Repair or replace all damaged or worn parts.
IF OK:
4.Leaking drum brake wheel cylinder piston seals.Disassemble whe wheel cylinder. Clean and inspect for evidence of leakage, damage or wear.Group 2, Part 1Repair or replace all damaged or worn parts.
IF OK:
5.Master cylinder check valve, piston springs, piston or cups are worn or damaged. Piston bore is pitted, worn or corroded.Disassemble the master cylinder. Clean and inspect for worn or damaged parts.Group 2, Part 2Repair or replace all worn or damaged parts

NOTE 1. On power brake equipped vehicles, excessively high line pressures build up allowing pedal travel to far exceed the normal travel required to stop the vehicle. This condition is not always an indication of air in the hydraulic system. Air in the hydraulic lines should be verified by applying the brakes with the vehicle in motion and noting the position of the brake pedal during normal brake application.
NOTE 2. If brake fluid leaks are noted at the brake master cylinder reservoir cover, remove the cover and inspect the cover diaphragm and seal installation.
NOTE 3. Brake fluid percolation (boiling) is caused by the use of sub-standard brake fluid with boiling point that is lower than Ford Motor Company specified brake fluid.

GROUP 2 (N)

PERFORMANCE CONDITIONS — DISC OR DRUM BRAKES — CARS OR TRUCKS
INISUFFICIENT BRAKING WITH MAXIMUM PRESSURE ON BRAKE PEDAL
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Most Probable CauseAction IndicatedReference For
Appropriate
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If Defective
1.Vehicle is overloaded.Check for over-loaded condition.Owners ManualLighten load and road test the vehicle to see if condition has been corrected. Advise owner of correct loading capacity.
IF OK:
2.Excessively worn tires.Check condition of tiresGroup 3, Part 4Replace excessively worn tires. Check wheel alignment if wear is uneven.
IF OK:
3.Wet brake linings and drums.Question owner in regard to wet driving condition encountered.Group 2, Part 2Make a few hard brake applications in a dry area to dry the brakes. Dry the linings and shoes with compressed air, if conditions will not allow the brake applications.
IF OK:
4.Improperly adjusted or damaged brake pedal linkage.Check operation of brake pedal for binding or sticking. Check adjustment of brake pedal.Group 2, Part 1Repair or replace worn or damaged parts. Lubricate the linkage pivot points. Adjust the brake pedal to specification.
IF OK:
5.Restricted brake line(s) or hose(s).Check brake lines and hoses for obstructions or kinks.Group 2, Part 1Remove any obstructions or kinks. Replace all worn or damaged lines or hoses.
IF OK:
6.One section of dua1 brake system is inoperative.Check operation of brake system for source of brake malfunction. Also, check operation of brake warning light.Group 2, Part 1Make necessary repairs. Replace warning lamp switch if defective. Adjust brakes and bleed system.
IF OK:
7.Dirty, contaminated or improper brake fluid.Check condition of the brake fluid. Check area of master cylinder for evidence of percolation (See NOTES 1 and 2).Group 2, Part 1Drain the brake system. Flush the system with clean brake fluid. Add the specified fluid to the proper level. Bleed the brake system.
IF OK:
8.Improperly adjusted drum brake shoes (manual adjusters).Check the brakes for improper adjustment.Group 2 Parts 1 & 2Adjust brakes.
IF OK:
9.Drum brake automatic self-adjusters not operating properlyCheck self-adjuster operation (See NOTE 3).Group 2, Part 1Correct any malfunction. Make several firm reverse brake stops to ensure adjustment at all wheels.
IF OK:
10.Drum brake shoe and lining assembly not properly positioned or seated.Inspect the shoe and lining assembly for proper positioning. Check for missing or improperly positioned shoe hold down clips (See NOTE 4).Group 2, Part 1Remove and reinstall shoe and lining assemblies. Repair or replace all worn or damaged parts.
IF OK:
11.Caliper shoe and lining assemblies not properly seated or positionedUse feeler gauge to check for complete lining contact with brakes applied and for free movement of shoe and lining assembly when pedal pressure is released. Check for free operation of caliper pistons.Group 2, Part 1Position the shoe and lining properly. Repair or replace worn or damaged caliper piston parts.
IF OK:
12.Binding of brake shoe camshafts (cam-type air brakes only).Actuate the brakes and check for bind condition.Group 2, Part 1Lubricate the camshafts
IF OK:
13.Binding of wedge actuating mechanism (wedge-type air brakes only).Actuate the brakes and check for bind condition.Group 2 Part 1Replace damaged or worn parts. Lubricate the mechanism.
IF OK:
14.Glazed, contaminated, dirty or greasy drum brake linings.Check condition of the brake linings. Check for sources of brake lining contamination. (See NOTE 5).Group 2, Part 1Clean linings with compressed air. Replace linings in sets (4) if contaminated with grease, oil or brake fluid at all. Repair or replace defective parts to prevent further contamination.
IF OK:
15.Wrong drum brake shoes or lining assembliesMeasure lining and drum assemblies with Tools FRE-1431 and HRE-8650.Group 2, Part 2Install correct shoe and lining assemblies.
IF OK:
16.Operator riding brake pedal (over-heating causing brake fade).Check owner for proper use of brakes. Inspect brakes for scoring and or heat damage (see NOTES 5 and 6).Group 2, Parts 1 and 2Advise owner of correct braking technique. Replace worn or damaged parts.
IF OK:
17.Caliper linings worn below specificationMeasure shoe and lining with micrometer at each side and in the middle at the shoe and lining assembly.Group 2, Part 1 and 2Replace shoe and lining if worn below specification.
IF OK:
18.Worn drum brake linings.Check for linings worn below specification.Group 2, Part 1Refinish or replace brake drums, if required. Install correct shoe and lining assemblies in sets (4). Adjust brakes.
IF OK:
19.Faulty caliper assembly.Disassemble caliper assembly. Clean and inspect for damaged or worn parts.Group 2, Part 2Repair or replace all worn or damaged parts.
IF OK:
20.Drum brake wheel cylinder malfunction.Disassemble wheel cylinder. Clean and inspect for evidence of wear or damage.Group 2, Part 2Repair or replace worn or damaged parts.
IF OK:
21.Master cylinder check valve, piston spring, piston or cups are worn or damaged. Piston bore is pitted, worn or corroded.Disassemble the master cylinder. Clean and inspect for evidence of damage or wear (See NOTE 2).Group 2, Part 2Repair or replace all worn or damaged parts.

NOTE 1. Brake fluid percolation is caused by the use of sub-standard brake fluid with a boiling point that is lower than Ford Motor Company specified brake fluid.
NOTE 2. Contaminated brake fluid can cause swelling of the rubber hoses, and the cups in the master cylinder and wheel cylinders.
NOTE 3. On self-adjusting brakes, the self-adjusting screws have right and left threads. Interchanging the brake self-adjusting screws from one side to the other will retract instead of expand the brake shoes. Adjusting screws are identified with "R" and "L" stamped on the end of each screw to aid in correct assembly.
NOTE 4. In some instances, brake shoe misalignment or improper seating can be attributed to threaded drum surfaces caused by poor refinishing (drum lathe turning) operations.
NOTE 5. Brakes become burnished at approximately 200 miles of normal city road operation on new vehicles or after a brake reline operation. After burnishing, the brake system becomes stabilized and the pedal becomes firm.
NOTE 6. The condition of brake shoes, retracting springs, hold-down springs and drums should be checked for overheating. If shoes have a slight blue coloring indicating overheating, the retracting and hold-down springs should be replaced.

GROUP 2 (O)

PERFORMANCE CONDITIONS — DISC OR DRUM BRAKES — CARS OR TRUCKS
BRAKE DRAG (SLOW OR INCOMPLETE RELEASE) - BRAKES RELEASED
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Most Probable CauseAction IndicatedReference For
Appropriate
Shop Manual
If Defective
1.Operator of vehicle rides brake pedal.Check driving habits of vehicle operator.Advise vehicle operator of proper brake operation.
IF OK:
2.Pedal travel restricted due to bind at pivot or linkage.Check brake pedal free travel. Actuate and observe brake pedal to isolate cause of bind or restriction.Group 2, Part 1Replace worn, damaged or missing parts. Lubricate bushings. Check brake pedal free travel.
IF OK:
3.Improperly adjusted or worn front wheel bearings.Check front wheel bearings for improper adjustment and wear.Group 3, Part 1Replace excessively worn or damaged wheel bearings and adjust it to specification.
IF OK:
4.Parking brake linkage or cable is improperly adjusted or does not fully release.Check parking brake linkage for worn or damaged parts. Check parking brake for proper operation and adjustment.Group 2, Part 1Replace worn or damaged parts. Check brake pedal free travel and height. Make adjustments, if required.
IF OK:
5.Brake pedal stop is bent or improperly adjusted.Check condition of brake pedal stop. Check brake pedal free travel.Group 2, Part 1Replace worn or damaged parking brake linkage parts. Adjust parking brake linkage to specification.
IF OK:
6.Brake booster (power brakes)linkage binds or is corroded or push rod length is not to specification.Check brake booster for proper installation. Check for worn or damaged booster linkage parts. Check booster to master cylinder push rod for specified length.Group 2, Part 1On a truck only, replace worn or damaged parts. Adjust booster push rod to specified length. Check brake pedal free travel and height. Make adjustments, if required.
IF OK:
7.Brake booster (power brakes) is internally faulty.Start the engine and check the booster for proper operation.Group 2, Part 1On cars only, replace the power brake booster if a malfunction of the unit is encountered. On trucks only, repair or replace worn or damaged brake booster parts.
IF OK:
8.Defective hydraulic piston check valve (trucks only).Disassemble booster. Check the operation of the hydraulic piston, piston check valve,Group 2, Part 2Repair or replace all worn or damaged parts.
IF OK:
9.Defective vacuum booster slave cylinder piston (trucks only).Disassemble slave cylinder assembly. Check operation of piston for sticking or binding. Also, check condition of the piston cup.Group 2, Part 2Repair or replace all worn or damaged parts.
IF OK:
10.Restricted brake line(s) or hose(s).Inspect all brake lines or hoses for obstructions or kinks.Group 2, Part 1Remove obstruction. Replace worn or damaged lines or hoses.
IF OK:
11.Dirty or contaminated brake fluid.Check for dirty or contaminated brake fluid (See NOTE 1).Group 2, Part 1Drain the system and flush it with denatured alcohol. Add specified brake fluid and bleed system.
IF OK:
12.Brake hydraulic lines from proportioning valve to wheels are interchanged (disc brakes).Inspect routing of lines.Group 2, Parts 1 and 2Install lines correctly.
IF OK:
13.Proportioning valve malfunction (disc brakes).Check operation of proportioning valve.Group 2, Parts 1 and 2Replace proportioning valve.
IF OK:
14.Contaminated caliper linings.Check condition of linings. Check for sources of lining contamination (See NOTE 2).Group 2, Part 1Clean the linings with compressed air. Replace linings if excessively glazed or contaminated with grease, oil or brake fluid.
IF OK:
15.Loosely attached caliper.Check caliper attaching bolts for looseness and wear.Group 2, Part 1Tighten caliper attaching bolts. Install retaining wire, if applicable. Replace assembly if badly worn.
IF OK:
16.Caliper shoe and lining assembly not properly seated or positioned.Use feeler gauge to check for complete lining contact with brakes applied and for free movement of shoe and lining assembly when pedal pressure is released. Check for free operation of caliper pistons.Group 2, Parts 1 and 2Position the shoe and lining properly. Repair or replace worn or damaged parts.
IF OK:
17.Excessive rotor runout.Remove front wheel bearing end play and measure rotor runout with a dial indicator.Group 2, Parts 1 and 2Refinish rotor, replace rotor, if required.
IF OK:
18.Faulty caliper assembly.Disassemble caliper assembly. Clean and inspect for damaged or worn parts.Group 2, Part 2Repair or replace damaged or worn parts.
IF OK:
19.Rear axle seal leaks.Check for leaking rear axle seal. Check brake linings for contamination.Group 2, Part 1 and Group 4Replace rear axle seal. Replace grease- or oil-contaminated brake shoes and linings as sets (4).
IF OK:
20.Drum brake wheel cylinder piston(s) seized.Check suspected cylinder for seizure by having someone apply brakes very lightly and observing action.Group 2, Parts 1 and 2Replace wheel cylinder if seized.
IF OK:
21.Contaminated, dirty, or greasy drum brake linings.Check condition of brake linings. Check for sources of brake lining contamination (See NOTE 1).Group 2, Part 1Clean linings with compressed air. Replace linings in sets (4) if required. Repair or replace defective parts to prevent further contamination.
IF OK:
22.Wheel cylinder leakage.Disassemble wheel cylinder, inspect for damage or wear. Clean and check brake linings for contamination.Group 2, Parts 1 and 2Repair or replace all damaged or worn parts. Replace contaminated brake shoes and linings as sets (4).
IF OK:
23.Distorted drum brake shoe.Remove drum. Inspect linings for distorted condition (See NOTES 2 and 3).Group 2, Parts 1 and 2Replace distorted brake shoes and linings. Burnish shoes as required to obtain full contact.
IF OK:
24.Incorrect brake linings or improper size on one side.Inspect brake shoes.Group 2, Parts 1 and 2Replace brake shoes in sets (4), as required.
IF OK:
25.Worn or grooved drum brake backing plate ledges. Loose or warped backing plate or bent achor pin.Check anchor pin and backing plate for worn, bent, warped or loose condition (See NOTE 4).Group 2 Parts 1 and 2Replace warped or damaged parts.
IF OK:
26.Drum brakes over adjusted or brake automatic self-adjusters (if so equipped) not operating properly.Check brakes for proper adjustment (manual adjuster). Check self-adjuster, (if so equipped) operation (See NOTES 5 and 6).Group 2, Part 1Repair or replace worn,damaged or incorrect parts and adjust brakes. Make several firm reverse brake stops to ensure adjustment of brake automatic self-adjusters, if so equipped.
IF OK:
27.Incorrect or weak drum brake shoe retracting spring.Inspect springs for being broken, missing, distorted or stretched. (See NOTE 6).Group 2, Parts 1 and 2Replace springs as required.
IF OK:
28.Broken wedge return spring (wedge-type air brakes only).Inspect assembly for broken or stretched return springs. (See NOTE 6).Group 2, Part 1Replace broken or stretched springs.
IF OK:
29.Broken retracting spring or binding hold pins (cam-type air brakes only).Inspect assembly for broken or stretched springs or for bind condition (See NOTE 6).Group 2, Part 1Replace broken or stretched springs. Lubricate pins.
IF OK:
30.Master cylinder check valve, piston spring, piston or cups are worn or damaged. Piston bore is pitted, worn or corroded.Disassemble master cylinder and inspect for damaged or worn parts (See NOTE 1).Clean Group 2, Parts 1 and 2Repair or replace all damaged or worn parts.

NOTE 1. The use of contaminated fluid in the brake system can result in swollen cups or other rubber parts within the brake system.
NOTE 2. Brakes become burnished at approximately 200 miles of normal city road operation on new vehicles or after a brake reline operation. After burnishing, the brake system becomes stabilized and the pedal becomes firm.
NOTE 3. In some instances, brake shoe misalignment or improper seating can be attributed to threaded drum surfaces caused by poor refinishing (drum lathe turning) operations.
NOTE 4. A drum-type brake shoe binding or hang-up condition may be attributed to grooves or wear of backing plate shoe ledges. Also, inspect the backing plate flange and brake drum for evidence of interference. File or stone shoe ledges to remove burrs or slight grooves, or replace backing plate if deep grooves are noted.
NOTE 5. On self-adjusting brakes, the self-adjusting screws have right and left threads. Interchanging the brake self-adjusting screws from one side to the other will retract instead of expand the brake shoes. Adjusting screws are identified with "R" and "L" stamped on the end of each screw to aid in correct assembly.
NOTE 6. The condition of brake shoes, retracting springs, hold-down springs and drums should be checked for overheating or overstretching. The retracting and hold-down springs should be replaced if damaged.

GROUP 2 (P)

PERFORMANCE CONDITIONS — BRAKE BOOSTER DISC OR DRUM BRAKES — CARS OR TRUCKS
ROUGH ENGINE IDLE OR STALL - BRAKES RELEASED
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Most Probable CauseAction IndicatedReference For
Appropriate
Shop Manual
If Defective
1.Vacuum hoses incorrectly routed.Check routing of all vacuum hoses.Group 2Route all hoses correctly.
IF OK:
2.Vacuum leaksCheck all hoses and hose connections for leaks. On trucks only, disassemble booster and check the control valve and booster diaphragm for leaks. Also check to see if booster diaphragm is located correctly.Group 2, Part 2On cars replace lines and booster, if damaged. On trucks only repair or replace any worn or damaged parts. Make all necessary adjustments to stop leaks.
IF OK:
3.Booster diaphragm ruptured or damaged (trucks)Check booster diaphragm for evidence of damage.Group 2, Part 2Replace diaphragm if it is ruptured or damaged.
IF OK:
4.Faulty Control valve (trucks)Check control valve piston and piston bore for corrosion or scoring. Also check condition of the piston return spring.Group 2, Part 2Repair piston if possible. Replace all damaged parts.

GROUP 2 (Q)

PERFORMANCE CONDITIONS — BRAKE BOOSTER DISC OR DRUM BRAKES — CARS OR TRUCKS
ROUGH ENGINE IDLE OR STALL — BRAKES APPLIED
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Most Probable CauseAction IndicatedReference For
Appropriate
Shop Manual
If Defective
1.Obstructed booster air cleaner.Check booster air cleaner for obstructions or excessive dirt.Group 2, Part 2-1Clean the air cleaner. Replace it if damaged.
IF OK:
2.Faulty control valveCheck the control valve piston and piston (trucks) bore for corrosion or scoring.Group 2, Part 2-1Repair piston if possible. Replace all damaged parts.
IF OK:
3.Vacuum leaks.Check all hoses and hose connections for leaks. On trucks only disassemble booster and check the control valve, booster diaphragm or atmospheric valve seal for leaks or damage.Group 2, Part 2-1On cars replace lines and booster if damaged. On trucks only, repair or replace all damaged or worn parts. Make all necessary adjustments to stop leaks.

GROUP 2 (R)

PERFORMANCE CONDITIONS — BRAKE BOOSTER — TRUCKS ONLY
BRAKES DO NOT RELEASE
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Appropriate
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If Defective
1.Defective hydraulic piston check valveDisassemble booster. Check the operation of the hydraulic piston, piston check valve.Group 2, Part 2Repair or replace all worn or damaged parts.
IF OK:
2.Defective vacuum booster slave cylinder piston (trucks only).Disassemble slave cylinder assembly. Check operation of piston for sticking or binding. Also check condition of the piston cup.Group 2, Part 2Repair or replace all worn or damaged parts.

GROUP 2 (S)

PERFORMANCE CONDITIONS — BRAKE BOOSTER — TRUCKS ONLY
PEDAL KICKS BACK WHEN APPLIED
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Appropriate
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If Defective
1.Defective hydraulic piston check valve, or vacuum booster slave cylinder piston or piston cup.Disassemble slave cylinder assembly and check hydraulic piston, piston spring and cup.Group 2, Part 2Replace worn or damaged parts.

GROUP 2 (T)

MISCELLANEOUS CONDITIONS — CARS
PARKING BRAKE WILL NOT FULLY RETURN OR RELEASE — CARS ONLY
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If Defective
1.Parking brake linkage is out of adjustment.Check parking brake linkage for improper adjustment.Group 2, Part 1Adjust parking brake linkage.
IF OK:
2.Parking brake linkage or control sticks or binds.Actuate and manually release the parking brake to check for weak or damaged cable return springs kinking binding or pinched cables or conduit. Check the control ratchet, manual release lever, pawl cam pin, pedal pawl and clevis for restricted travel binds or damage.Group 2, Part 2Repair or replace all worn or damaged parts. Lubricate the linkage.
IF OK:
3.Vacuum control line is incorrectly routed (vacuum release parking brakes).Check routing of all vacuum hoses.Group 2, Part 2Route all vacuum hoses correctly.
IF OK:
4.A vacuum control line is disconnected, pinched or leaks (vacuum released parking brake).Check parking brake vacuum hoses and connection for leaks or pinched condition (see NOTE 1).Group 2, Part 1Replace all worn or damaged lines or hoses. Connect vacuum lines properly.
IF OK:
5.Vacuum switch is inoperative or incorrectly installed (vacuum released parking brakes).Check operation of vacuum switch (see NOTE 1).Group 2, Part 2Replace faulty worn or damaged parts. Install vacuum switch correctly.
IF OK:
6.Vacuum leak at release mechanism.Make vacuum checks.TSB #46Replace defective parts.
IF OK:
7.Rear parking brake cable plastic conduit liner, if so equipped is melted due to overheated rear brake.Check rear cable plastic conduit liner for a melted condition.Group 2, Part 2Replace worn or damaged parts.
IF OK:
8.Weak or damaged springs at rear brake shoe(s)Check for weak worn or damaged springs (see NOTE 2).Group 2, Part 2Replace all worn or damaged parts.

NOTE 1. Refer to Brake System Diagnosis in Ford Technical Service Bulletin 46 for the vacuum operated parking brake tests.
NOTE 2. The condition of brake shoes, retracting springs, hold-down springs and drums should be checked for overheating. Replace the retracting and hold-down springs if they were overheated.

GROUP 2 (U)

MISCELLANEOUS CONDITIONS — TRUCKS
PARKING BRAKE WILL NOT FULLY RETURN OR RELEASE — TRUCKS ONLY
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Appropriate
Shop Manual
If Defective
1.Parking brake linkage sticks or binds.Check linkage including cables for binding, sticking or kinking.Group 2, Part 2Remove all kinks from cable. Lubricate linkage.
IF OK:
2.Vacuum or air lines leaking.Check all vacuum or air lines and hoses for leaks.Group 2, Part 2Replace all worn or damaged lines and hoses.
IF OK:
3.Vacuum hoses incorrectly routed.Check routing of all lines and hoses.Group 2, Part 2Route all lines and hoses correctly.
IF OK:
4.Insufficient air pressure being delivered to spring brake (Maxibrake system).Check sources of low air pressure. Refer to "Air Pressure Below Normal" under Air Brake Air Supply System Section of this manual. Also check maxibrake actuating mechanism for proper operation.Group 2,Part 2Repair or replace all worn or damaged parts. Also, replace actuating mechanism, if defective.
IF OK:
5.Damaged or incorrectly assembled wedge parking brake (Shortstop brake system).Disassemble actuating assembly.Group 2, Part 2Repair or replace all worn or damaged parts.

GROUP 2 (V)

MISCELLANEOUS CONDITIONS — CARS
PARKING BRAKE REQUIRES EXCESSIVE PEDAL EFFORT TO LOCK — CARS ONLY
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Most Probable CauseAction IndicatedReference For
Appropriate
Shop Manual
If Defective
1.Parking brake linkage is adjusted too tight.Check parking brake linkage for proper adjustment.Group 2, Part 1Adjust parking brake linkage.
IF OK:
2.Parking brake linkage or control sticks or binds.Actuate and manually release the parking brake to check for kinking, binding or pinched cables and conduit. Check the control ratchet, manual release lever, pawl cam pin, pedal pawl and clevis for restricted travel, binds or damage.Group 2, Part 1Repair or replace all worn or damaged parts, lubricate the linkage.
IF OK:
3.Rear parking brake cable plastic conduit liner, if so equipped, is melted due to overheated rear brake.Check rear cable conduit liner for a melted condition.Group 2, Part 2Replace worn or damaged parts.

GROUP 2 (W)

MISCELLANEOUS CONDITIONS — CARS ONLY
PARKING BRAKE RELEASES INADVERTENTLY
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If Defective
1.Parking brake control assembly is faulty.Actuate and manually release the parking brake to check for malfunctions of the control ratchet, manual release lever, pawl cam pin pedal pawl and clevis for wear or damage.Group 2, Part 2Repair or replace worn or damaged parts.
IF OK:
2.Vacuum switch is faulty.Check operation of vacuum switch (see NOTE 1).Group 2, Part 1Replace faulty worn or damaged parts. Install vacuum switch properly.

NOTE 1. Refer to Ford Technical Service Bulletin 46 for the vacuum operated parking brake tests.

GROUP 2 (X)

MISCELLANEOUS CONDITIONS — CARS OR TRUCKS
PARKING BRAKE PEDAL HAS EXCESSIVE TRAVEL (WON'T HOLD) — CARS ONLY
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Appropriate
Shop Manual
If Defective
1.Parking brake linkage is out of adjustment (too loose).Check parking brake linkage for looseness and improper adjustment.Group 2, Part 1Adjust parking brake linkage.
IF OK:
2.Parking brake control assembly is faulty.Actuate the parking brake to check the parking brake control mechanism for malfunction.Group 2, Part 1Repair or replace worn or damaged parts.
IF OK:
3.Brakes at rear wheels are improperly adjusted.Check rear brakes for improper adjustment or insufficient reverse stops.Group 2, Part 1Make several reverse stops to bring the brake shoe and lining into adjustment. Adjust parking brakes.
IF OK:
4.Rear brake adjusters are faulty or incorrect or worn brake linings are being used.Remove rear wheels and drums. Check rear brake adjusters for improper operation by actuating the brakes. Check for worn or incorrect brake linings. (see NOTE 1).Group 2, Part 1Repair or replace worn or damaged parts.

NOTE 1. On self-adjusting brakes, the self-adjusting screws have right and left threads. Interchanging the brake self-adjusting screws from one side to the other will retract instead of expand the brake shoes. Adjusting screws are identified with "R" and "L" stamped on the end of each screw to aid in correct assembly.

GROUP 2 (Y)

MISCELLANEOUS CONDITIONS — TRUCKS
PARKING BRAKE WILL NOT HOLD (NO APPLICATION) — TRUCKS ONLY
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Most Probable CauseAction IndicatedReference For
Appropriate
Shop Manual
If Defective
1.Parking brake linkage sticks or binds.Check linkage for sticking or binding, also check parking brake cable for kinks.Group 2, Part 2Repair or replace all worn or damaged parts. Remove all kinks from parking brake cable and route correctly.
IF OK:
2.Parking brake linkage out of adjustmentCheck linkage for looseness or damage.Group 2, Part 2Repair or replace worn or damaged parts. Adjust linkage as required.
IF OK:
3.Brake release bolt loose (short-stop brake system)Remove breather cap from brake actuating mechanism and check brake release bolt for looseness.Group 2, Part 2Tighten brake release bolt.
IF OK:
4.Parking brake spring is stretched or damaged.Check parking brake spring for stretching or damage. Also, check air brake piston springs for wear or damage.Group 2, Part 2Replace all worn or damaged springs.
IF OK:
5.Leaking service brake air chamber (air brakes).Perform air leak test on service brake air chamber.Group 2, Part 2Repair or replace all worn or damaged parts.
IF OK:
6.Improper adjustment of wedge parking brake. (Shortstop brake system).Remove actuating mechanism breather cap arid check adjustment of brake release bolt.Group 2, Part 2Adjust as required.
IF OK:
7.Damaged or incorrectly assembled wedge parking brake (Shortstop brake system).Disassemble actuating assembly. Check for worn or damaged parts.Group 2, Part 2Repair or replace all worn or damaged parts.

GROUP 2 (Z)

MISCELLANEOUS CONDITIONS — CARS OR TRUCKS
DUAL BRAKE SYSTEM WARNING LAMP DOES NOT LIGHT
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Appropriate
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If Defective
1.Dual-brake system warning lamp bulb is burned out or wiring to bulb has an open circuit.Turn the ignition switch key to the start position. The warning lamp bulb should light at this point. If the bulb does not light, the wiring leading to the bulb from the ignition switch or relay (if so equipped) is defective or the bulb is burned out.Group 15,Replace the bulb, relay and/or wiring as required.
IF OK:
2.Dual brake system warning lamp switch has an open circuit.Remove the wire from the warning lamp switch. Remove the switch. Connect the wire to the switch once again. Depress the switch plunge on a good ground on the vehicle. The lamp bulb should light at this point if the switch is good.Group 15Replace the switch.

GROUP 2 (AA)

MISCELLANEOUS CONDITIONS — CARS OR TRUCKS
DUAL BRAKE SYSTEM WARNING LAMP STAYS LIT
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Appropriate
Shop Manual
If Defective
1.Leaks in hydraulic system.Inspect for leakage.Group 2Correct leakage bleed system and centralize valve. Replace or repair wire.
IF OK:
2.Wiring, located between dual brake system warning lamp and the switch on the differential valve, is grounded.Check the wiring between the warning lamp and switch for a grounded condition.Group 15Replace or repair wire.
IF OK:
3.Dual brake system warning lamp switch is grounded.Remove the warning lamp switch. Ground the switch on the differential valve. If the brake warning lamp lights without depressing the switch plunger, the switch assembly is grounded.Group 15Replace the dual brake warning lamp switch.
IF OK:
4.Low brake fluid level in master cylinder primary or secondary hydraulic system reservoir or air in hydraulic system. Excessive pedal travel.Refer to "Excessive Pedal Travel or Low Pedal" in this group of the manuals for applicable diagnostic action to be taken to eliminate malfunctions.Group 2, Part 1Repair or replace all damaged, worn parts. Add specified fluid to system. Bleed the brakes and centralize the pressure differential valve.
IF OK:
5.Brake system capacity exceeded by brake abuse or overloaded vehicle. Excessive pedal effort.Refer to "Excessive Pedal Effort Required to Fully Apply Brakes" in this group of the manual for applicable diagnostic action to be taken to eliminate malfunction.Group 2, Part 1Advise operator not to exceed specified vehicle load capability. Advise operator that a "hammer-like" application of brakes causes excessively high brake system pressures that may cause the differential valve to move, thereby switching on warning lamp inadvertently. Repair or replace worn or damaged parts, as required, to eliminate excessive pedal effort.
IF OK:
6.Improper or wrong size and type of master cylinder, brake line(s) or wheel cylinder(s) used in the brake system.Check to make certain the proper master cylinder, brake line(s) or wheel cylinder(s) are used in the brake system.Group 2, Part 1Replace improper size and type of master cylinder, brake line(s) or wheel cylinder (s) in the brake system.

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